Specialist velvet upholstery cleaning

Pure cotton velvet requires careful attention & is easy to damage through rinse extraction cleaning. Because it is a “cut pile”, the individual cotton threads will tend to compact when wet.

It is for this reason that many upholstery cleaning companies will either refuse to clean velvet, or insist on using large quantities of volatile solvents to do the job. Dry cleaning solvent has its place in the arsenal of a professional fabric cleaner, but will not yield particularly good results for a general clean.

The owner of this particular velvet sofa had informed us that their cat had urinated on the fabric multiple times & that the visible damage & odour needed professional attention.

Avoiding damage

Stain removal from velvet

This image & the (very dull!) video below demonstrate how wetting affects a velvet pile and- importantly- how using a velvet “boffin” brush can reset the pile & reduce the risk of damage.

Removing pet urine from velvet

Urine will always leave uric salts within fabric, which need neutralising & removing. This creates an interesting problem when the fabric is velvet, as we will usually be looking to use as little moisture as possible to avoid potential damage.

In this case, our technician applied a specific urine neutralising solution to the velvet in minimal quantities using a sponge, rather than spraying it directly onto the fabric. This reduced the chance of the pile collapsing & ensured that we were able to remove the cat pee odour.

Our team are IICRC approved in Odour Control & have a range of solutions & equipment to tackle most issues.

Conclusion: The final result (which, alas, we forgot to photograph) was an odourless, sanitised & visually clean velvet sofa which our client was delighted with. This type of work tends to take a little longer than standard upholstery cleaning, but we find it very satisfying when we can bring this luxury fabric back to its true potential condition.

If you have any questions about our professional velvet cleaning process, please get in touch.

Thank you for reading!

Odour Neutralisation in a cottage in Broadway

The Brief –

This week, three of our technicians were called out to conduct a full professional odour neutralisation clean for a start of tenancy in Broadway. The new owners had realised that the property smelled strongly of tobacco odours as a result of a long-term smoker in the property.

A certified IICRC company

IICRC Water Restoration Technician

Green Man are certified members of the IICRC & our technicians are trained to the highest standard in a wide range of services, including flood restoration & odour neutralisation.

The Odour Control Technicians Course teaches a rigorous & scientific approach to the causes of odours. Nicotene & smoke odour removal requires intensive cleaning with specialist solutions of all surfaces, including walls & ceilings…

Because of the “sticky” nature of deposits from tobacco smoke, traditional rinse extraction is an essential first approach to removing unpleasant smells from soft furnishings, such as curtains & upholstery.

Professional end of tenancy cleaning in Broadway

Porous surfaces such as stone require a longer contact time with the specialist cleaning solution, so we employ a foam-generating sprayer to ensure the “dwell time” of the product is increased.

There are many similarities between decontaminating a property (for Covid-19, or other pathogens) & eliminating odours. In both cases, all surfaces must be cleaned & sanitised prior to fogging. When the Covid-19 pandemic first began, we noted that many companies appeared offering to decontaminated commercial & domestic properties using fogging alone. This will not work.

Professional deodorisation using a fogger

Simply misting a product onto a dirty/dusty surface does not deal with either an odour issue or bacteria/viruses at their root cause.

Once we had completed a thorough clean of every surface in the property, we then conducted a professional fogging using an eco-friendly odour counteractant.

The purpose of fogging is to create a “fog” of particles only a few microns in diameter that are able to penetrate areas that cleaning cannot reach, and also interact with the molecules & micro-organisms that we are seeking to deactivate.

If you have any questions regarding professional odour neutralisation, decontamination or any of our services, please feel free to get in touch.

You can use the telephone numbers at the top & bottom of this page, or use our Contact page to email us.

Upholstery cleaning in Broadway

Cleaning & sealing a Victorian tiled hallway

Many homes from the Victorian/Edwardian era contain skillfully laid tiled hallways. When they were originally installed, they would have then been cleaned & oiled at least once a week. In the more recent modern era, mopping is the main method of cleaning and brings with it a few issues.

“What has this floor been cleaned with?”

The chances are that most tiled floors are cleaned with a general detergent based solution. Over time, the sticky residues left by mopping with detergent accumulate in the grout lines and flaws in the tiles, attracting further dirt. If this is combined with insufficient rinsing, then you will find that entrance tiles can soon lose their vibrant colours beneath layers of soil.

Victorian tile cleaning in Cheltenham
Pointing finger L

This image shows a typical example. The floor is actually quite recent, but a regime of heavy footfall & standard mopping has lead to a dull, faded appearance.

After an initial survey to determine the quality of the installation & integrity of the tiles, our technician performed a simple test of the seal (this is done by pouring a small amount of water onto the surface of a section of tiles to see if the water is absorbed).

Any absorption indicates that the seal has failed & will require new applications of a sealant. 

The Clean

Stage One:

First of all, we conduct a thorough sweep & dry extraction of all debris & loose material on the floor.

Stage Two:

Next, we apply an eco-friendly tile specific alkali cleaning solution to break down historic deposits of soil, grease and layers of ingrained detergent residues. We do this in stages, using either a rotary machine or a more specialist agitating device (example video below) to ensure the floor is scubbed as thoroughly as possible.

How we deep-clean & re-seal Victorian tiles

Stage 3:

After the cleaning solution has broken down the layers of dirt in the tiles, we extract the resulting slurry using a rinse extraction machine or a “wet pick-up”. We then clean & rinse the floor again using pure water only. This tends to be the last stage of Day 1.

Stage 4:

On Day 2, only after the floor is completely dry, we begin applying the new layers of seal. The type of seal depends on the preferred finish type of the homeowner – in this case, we were instructed to put down a satin finish. After the initial layer has been applied, we allow the seal to dry or “cure” before applying further coats.

“A completely reinvigorating facelift”

Pointing finger

After 3 layers of sealant have been applied, the job is complete.

You can see in the image opposite that not only have these tiles been deeply cleaned, but that their colours are now enhanced.

This is the beauty of applying the right type of seal – you are protecting your floor from scuffs & spills, as well as giving the very first area of your home that people see a completely reinvigorating facelift.

Victorian tile sealing in Cheltenham

If you have any questions regarding the cleaning, sealing or general maintenance of your floor tiles, or any type of stone or laminate flooring, please do get in touch using either our  CONTACT page, or by calling your local branch of Green Man using the number at the top of the page.

Thank you for reading.

TV series upholstery cleaning under Covid!

Yesterday, our senior technician Rodney Gray attended a TV location to conduct a commercial upholstery clean.

 

The situation

Professional sofa cleaning

The modern looking suite had sat on a shelf in one of the large London prop-houses and had become dusty and probably a little damp. The shoot was imminent & the upholstery needed a professional deep clean to a high standard.

The need for a quick response was clear & we despatched our most experienced technician within 24 hours.

A professional deep-clean of props that have been hired presents an interesting situation. The items do not belong to the tv production team, so if these sofas & armchairs were damaged, the production company (and then us!) become liable. Every upholstery clean we conduct begins with a careful pre-test. There are endless combinations of fabric types that are used by furniture manufactures. Some of these (such as Haitian cotton, viscose, velvet etc.) can be challenging to clean without damage. 

The clean

Because of Covid-19 restrictions and, quite probably, the franticness of work on-set, an area outside had been prepared for us. This was ideal as it was a lovely day for drying – some late Autumn sun & a light breeze.

Professional commercial upholstery cleaning in Bristol

After the initial tests were done, we confirmed the fabric was suitable for a deep clean.

Our eco-friendly process follows the full professional specification to ensure all dry soil is recovered prior to stain treatments, rinse extraction (“steam cleaning”) and post-clean checks.

Professional commercial upholstery cleaning on a film set

The image above demonstrates the poor condition of the fabric. Our technician has applied our eco-sanitising pre-spray and is about to brush this in to work the solution evenly throughout. Once wet, fabrics often reveal their true condition. This also means that it can be difficult to determine the success of a clean until the item is fully dry.

The image also displays the Sapphire upholstery tool. This remarkable piece of kit enables us to rinse extract upholstery without actually “firing” the rinse solution into the fabric. The video below demonstrates the principle (see 1:10) :

The work went well and a large amount of soiling was recovered. Our cleaning methodology sanitises as part of the process. On an extremely Covid sensitive site, this was an additional bonus for the production team.

Thank you for reading!

Marmoleum polish & repair at The Corinium Museum, Cirencester

This week, the Green Man team were working in the impressive new extension at The Corinium Museum, Cirencester. The museum houses a fine collection of large Roman mosaics from the 2nd and 4th century, and a wide array of artefacts from the Roman town of Corinium. The new extension is designed as a narrative through time and describes the evolution of the Cotswolds from a prehistoric landscape to more civilised times.

Damaged marmoleum

During the renovation of this part of the gallery, contractors fitted brand new marmoleum flooring. Unfortunately, a shallow gouge occurred in the floor after it had been laid-

Shallow gouge in marmoleum
Scratched marmoleum

These types of shallow scrapes present multiple challenges.

Sometimes it is easier if the damage is deeper, as it allows for the repair to bond with the marmoleum more fully.

Before attempting to repair the damage, it was important to ensure the surface was clean…

Commercial floor cleaning

Cleaning this flooring begins with a thorough removal of loose soil & debris to ensure that there is nothing abrasive left prior to machine cleaning…

In the image, you can see our technician Pete wielding the mighty “scissor” (dry) mop. This is an especially handy tool for sweeping large areas of commercial hard flooring.

Commercial builders cleaning

After we had removed as much loose material as possible, it was time to apply a cleaning solution & agitate the flooring.

Forbo, the manufacturers of marmoleum, specify their own cleaning solution and method of clean.

We applied the product & agitated the floor with a lightly abrasive white pad. This works the solution evenly across the floor, as well as helping to lift out any stubborn or sticky soils.

Professional marmoleum cleaning
How to clean marmoleum

After the cleaning solution has been agitated & dwelt sufficiently on the marmoleum, it needs to be rinsed off the surface using a wet vac.

The commercial cleaning of marmoleum

This ensures no residue remains and leaves the flooring streak-free.

The floor dried very quickly, which meant we could begin to address the marmoleum repair.

Repairing marmoleum 

On this occasion, our work was made more difficult becuase the damage ran across two differing types of marmoleum.

Firstly, a paste is made by mixing a powdered sample of the same type of marmoleum & an appropriate type of glue. This is placed into the areas of damage.

Close up of marmoelum with hoofer dust

This is then carefully pushed into the gouge to ensure the best chance of adhesion…

Marmoleum repair
How to repair scratched marmoelum

The paste is then allowed to dry, ideally overnight.

How to repair damaged marmoleum

Once dry, the area of repair is sanded down to the level of the floor. This leaves a flat surface which is easily distinguished, owing to its lack of reflectivity.

Refinishing marmoleum
Marmoleum repair services

This area now requires additional cleaning to remove the fine debris from the in-fill. Following the clean, the area is force dried & several layers of marmoleum polish are applied.

PXL 20201117 140511570
PXL 20201117 140511570

The result

To be honest, the result in this instance was not perfect. Marmoleum is designed to be repairable, but the more heavily patterned styles hide repairs much more easily. As you can see from the image, the lighter area of flooring is more forgiving of the repair.

What we certainly managed to achieve here was a level finish. Those involved with the fitting of marmoleum will confirm that achieving an invisible repair with the simpler designs of this flooring type is practically impossible. Over time, the accumulations of cleaning & polishing will help to blend out the areas of repair.

Importantly, we had done our best to manage our client’s expectations from the start. No-one wants to send brand new pieces of marmoleum to the tip, so often it makes sense to attempt repair first.

We would like to thank Amanda Hart (Museum Director) for her kind assitance and for making our time in The Corinium Museum an interesting & valuable experience.

Thank you also for reading!

Charity upholstery clean in Stroud

Last week, our technicians Adrian & Ellie gave up their time to conduct a free upholstery clean for the members of Frith Youth Centre in Stroud. 

Frith Youth Centre aims to help young people develop through guidance, education, and teamwork, providing empowering opportunities toward interdependence. Most of these are in the form of Youth Drop-Ins with positive activities.

It will come as no surprise to learn that the youth centre’s sofas have withstood some robust use over last few years…

Environmentally friendly sofa cleaning in Stroud 1024x760 1

What is involved in a professional upholstery clean?

 The first thing we did here was assess the condition of the fabric. As in any family home, fabric is affected by wear (sometimes in the form of teenagers jumping on it), and through an accumulation of soils (from spillages, contact with greasy hands, dust etc.). Our process is carefully specified to ensure that every aspect of potential soil is addressed.

Here is a basic outline of our method:

  • Vacuum the fabric – this removes as much dry soil as can be recovered in this way
  • Stain treatments – to ensure that specific marks (chewing gum, tea, coffee, takeaways…) are given the right chemical solution to render them soluable for the final rinse process
  • Application of a pre-spray – the solutions we use are eco-friendly and safe for pets/humans. They break down the tougher greases and dirt.
  • Agitation – for this part, we use either a motorised brush or a “boffin” brush to work the solution evenly throughout the upholstery fabric
  • Dwell – this is the period of time required for our solutions to work properly
  • Rinse extraction – sometimes called “steam cleaning”, this is the noisy part where we flush all the soiling from the fabric & simultaneously recover it with a powerful vacuum
  • Final touches – sometimes we will need to leave an air-mover to accelerate drying, sometimes the knap of the fabric will need grooming to ensure an even finish
Eco friendly upholstery cleaning in Stroud 1024x455 1

The result

The sofas responded extremely well and a huge improvement was made. Not only this, but our method will sanitise the upholstery we work on which leaves a safer and more pleasant environment for everyone. 

Here are Bev Roesen’s thoughts about the day’s work:

“Ade and Els have transformed the sofas in our youth club! 

 The sofas had been used and abused for years – full of stains, marks and smells. They worked tirelessly until they were perfect and then used a treatment on them that will prevent regular marking. We feel confident that they are completely clean and sterile for when we reopen, particularly because of coronavirus.

They were friendly, chatty, knowledgeable and we appreciate their efforts so much. It’s made a huge difference for the young people using our club. I will recommend highly. Bev (Administrator, Frith Youth Centre)”

– It was our pleasure.

Thank you for reading.

Hello, Cheltenham. We remain open & determined to fight this…

[et_pb_section fb_built=”1″ _builder_version=”4.4.3″][et_pb_row _builder_version=”4.4.3″][et_pb_column type=”4_4″ _builder_version=”4.4.3″][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.4.3″]

Good morning, Cheltenham. Here we go again…

I must admit, it felt pretty dispiriting to hear we were to go into a second lockdown. I feel particularly for our local businesses in the hospitality sector that are forced to close their doors. All we can hope for is that as many of us as possible manage to stick to the guidelines & do what we can to keep one another safe.

Green Man have taken the decision to continue to work.

We upgraded our Covid-19 working protocols last Friday to ensure we remain compliant.

Specifically, we are:

  • Maintaining a more than safe distance between ourselves & our customers (we are asking customers to either be out of the house or, at the very least, never in the same room as our technicians)
  • Wearing masks throughout the duration of any job
  • Sanitising any touch-points we have interfaced with at the end of the job

As a small local business, we have to try and stay working if we can.

I appreciate that some may disagree with this.

Unfortunately, as self-employed tradesmen (and women, Ellie!) we are not guaranteed the same rights as those eligible for furlough. It looks as though the chancellor may have increased our entitlement, but the message seems to be that we should continue to work until told otherwise.

Other news

Aside from the misery that is Covid, the good news is that we have been working to improve our offering.

We have recently invested in new kit & upgrades to be able to better deliver urine treatments. Never a glamorous service, but absolutely a key part of our offering!

The new kit enables us to more effectively tackle the sub-floor and underlay as part of our process. We have sourced an industry-standard new solution that powers through the ammonia compounds & nitrogen build-ups that urine causes.

If you have any questions about this, or anything related to our range of carpet, hard-floor, rug, stone or upholstery cleaning services, we’d be delighted to hear from you.

Take care, stay safe,

Jon (Director)

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][/et_pb_section]

Eco-friendly whole house clean in a Cotswold country home

Professional wood floor refinishing

Green Man provide a mid-point between maintenance & sanding for home owners with wooden flooring. This property had a large amount of wood flooring with a heavy varnish & significant marking throughout.  

We discussed with the client the pros & cons of refinishing compared to sanding in this instance. As the floors needed to be ready in a short amount of time within a pre-determined budget, refinishing was chosen.

The process involves:

  • Dry extraction/vacuuming
  • Application of linseed oil based bio-cleaning solution
  • Agitation using oscillating pad machine
  • Rinse extraction
  • Accelerated drying using air-movers
  • Application of two coats of industry standard wood refinisher (which refreshes the varnish, as well as in-filling micro-abrasions on the varnish)

Professional sisal carpet cleaning

Sisal flooring is beautiful & resilient to heavy use, but very difficult to clean once dirty or stained. Because it is a dry, cellulosic fibre any excess of water will cause it to deteriorate. For this reason, we use a dry compound to clean sisal. It’s a fairly laborious, time-consuming process but, as you can see, these carpets responded very well-

Last month, the whole Green Man team worked together to deep-clean & decontaminate a large country home in the Cotswolds within just three days. This brought together our teams from Bath, Bristol, Cheltenham, Frome & Gloucester in close co-ordination amidst strict social distancing and involved the following professional cleaning services:

  • Wool carpet cleaning
  • Sisal carpet cleaning
  • Wood flooring cleaning & refinishing
  • Limestone floor cleaning
  • Linen upholstery cleaning
  • Full decontamination of the large 6 bedroom property

We were delighted to also be contracting with local providers Clean as a Jem for:

  • Start of tenancy deep-cleaning
  • Window Cleaning

The Brief

Our client contacted us on behalf of the buyer to initially conduct a full survey of the property. The brief was demanding, but simple,

“Deep-clean, restore & decontaminate every aspect of the property in order to bring it as close to ‘as new’ as possible.” 

The work was also specified to be carried out within three days, alongside multiple other contractors engaged in decorating, installing electrical systems & landscaping.

Eco friendly hard floor cleaning in the Cotswolds 1

Professional wool carpet cleaning

The property had been purchased part-furnished and was fitted with a large amount of white, pure wool carpeting. In order to bring the carpets to their best potential condition, we specified a deep-clean with our most powerful, eco-solution that not only sanitises the wool, but conditions it. 

Our process for cleaning carpets includes:

  • Pre-testing
  • Industrial vacuuming with Sebo BS36/46
  • Spot/stain treatments
  • Application of eco-sanitising solution
  • Agitation (mechanical or manual with a pile brush)
  • Traditional rinse extraction
  • Pile grooming
  • Accelerated drying using air-movers

Professional limestone floor cleaning

The entrance hall, downstairs corridors, kitchen & multiple en suite bathrooms had limestone flooring. The flooring was quite heavily soiled and would need a full deep-clean using our hard-floor cleaning machinery & solutions. The survey indicated that although the limestone would benefit from a top-up coat of impregnating seal, the logistics of multiple trades moving throughout the property meant that there would not be any opportunity to do this.

Limestone flooring is porous & textured, meaning plenty of imperfections in which soil can accumulate. Our method is to use a combination of rotary brush & oscillating pad, followed by rinse extraction to remove the soil and bring the limestone back to its original brightness.

Professional linen upholstery cleaning

One of the first things noted in the initial survey was a huge amount of linen furniture. As well as the largest corner sofa I’d ever seen (in the cinema room), there were also 2x three piece suites, an array of dining chairs & multiple chaise longues in the bedrooms & bathrooms.

Linen is a natural fibre from the flax plant. For this reason, it needs to be treated with care as it can suffer cellulosic browning if overwet, or rinsed with a solution at the incorrect ph. Obviously, when faced with such a large quantity of fabric, it is critical to maintain attention to detail…

The Verdict

The team knew from the outset that our client had specified the work to be of the highest standard. At the end of Day 3, I conducted a full walk-through with our client & housekeeping. It was with a real sense of satisfaction & relief that we were told that our work had fulfilled the new owner’s specifications.

If you have an enquiry regarding deep-cleaning, start of tenancy, end of tenancy or decontamination services in the Cotswolds area, feel free to get in touch to arrange a no obligation survey.

Thank you for reading.

Velvet Upholstery Cleaning in Lechlade

[et_pb_section fb_built=”1″ _builder_version=”4.4.3″][et_pb_row _builder_version=”4.4.3″][et_pb_column _builder_version=”4.4.3″ type=”4_4″][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.4.3″ hover_enabled=”0″]

Earlier this week, we were in Lechlade conducting a full deep clean of multiple velvet items in a classic Cotswold cottage. Conducting an eco-friendly clean of true cotton velvet can present multiple challenges to an upholstery cleaning technician, not least the danger of damaging the delicate pile.

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row _builder_version=”4.4.3″][et_pb_column _builder_version=”4.4.3″ type=”4_4″][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.4.3″ hover_enabled=”0″]

In the short timelapse video below, our technician Pete is demonstrating the basic velvet cleaning method. Using a completely eco-friendly solution, he is able to conduct a full rinse extraction clean of this Ottoman without damaging the pile of the delicate fabric-

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row _builder_version=”4.4.3″ hover_enabled=”0″][et_pb_column _builder_version=”4.4.3″ type=”4_4″][et_pb_video src=”https://youtu.be/-XtDZzKoPKU” _builder_version=”4.4.3″ hover_enabled=”0″][/et_pb_video][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row _builder_version=”4.4.3″][et_pb_column _builder_version=”4.4.3″ type=”4_4″][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.4.3″ hover_enabled=”0″]

Careful pre-testing and post-clean re-grooming of the upholstery pile or nap are vital to ensure a thorough and safe job are completed to our customer’s satisfaction here.

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row _builder_version=”4.4.3″][et_pb_column _builder_version=”4.4.3″ type=”4_4″][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.4.3″ hover_enabled=”0″]

The images below are a combination of “Before & After” photos, which give you a good idea of the effectiveness of the method.

The yellow sofa is a favourite of the resident dogs and, as you can see, we managed to lift the majority of embedded oil that had transferred into the cotton…

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row _builder_version=”4.4.3″][et_pb_column _builder_version=”4.4.3″ type=”4_4″][et_pb_image src=”https://greenmancleaning.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/Velvet-Sofa-Cleaning-before-and-after-1024×1024.jpg” _builder_version=”4.4.3″ hover_enabled=”0″][/et_pb_image][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row _builder_version=”4.4.3″][et_pb_column _builder_version=”4.4.3″ type=”4_4″][et_pb_image src=”https://greenmancleaning.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/Modern-velvet-sofa-cleaning-before-and-after.jpg” _builder_version=”4.4.3″ hover_enabled=”0″][/et_pb_image][et_pb_image src=”https://greenmancleaning.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/Professional-velvet-cleaning-before-and-after-1024×1024.jpg” _builder_version=”4.4.3″ hover_enabled=”0″][/et_pb_image][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row _builder_version=”4.4.3″ column_structure=”1_2,1_2″ make_equal=”on” hover_enabled=”0″][et_pb_column _builder_version=”4.4.3″ type=”1_2″][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.4.3″ hover_enabled=”0″]

In addition to the velvet items, we were also asked to clean a cotton Edwardian style sofa.

Here too we conducted the full professional method:

  • Pre-test
  • Careful vacumming of fabric
  • Attend to stains
  • Apply eco-sanitising pre-spray
  • Careful agitation
  • Traditional rinse extraction

The image here is taken during the final extraction process to demonstrate the difference we made-

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column _builder_version=”4.4.3″ type=”1_2″][et_pb_image src=”https://greenmancleaning.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/Eco-friendly-Upholstery-Cleaning-in-Lechlade.jpg” _builder_version=”4.4.3″ hover_enabled=”0″][/et_pb_image][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row _builder_version=”4.4.3″][et_pb_column _builder_version=”4.4.3″ type=”4_4″][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.4.3″ hover_enabled=”0″]

If you have an enquiry relating to velvet upholstery cleaning or any of our specialist cleaning services, please feel free to get in touch.

Thank you for reading.

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][/et_pb_section]